- 1 First aid
- 2 How to give first aid
- 3 Artificial lung ventilation
- 4 Top 5 tips for mouth-to-mouth
- 5 Compressions
- 6 The Heimlich Maneuver
- 7 Help with bleeding
- 8 Treatment of injuries
- 9 First aid for fractures
- 10 The treatment of burns
- 11 Withdrawal from fainting
- 12 Drowning and sunstroke
- 13 Hypothermia and frostbite
- 14 First aid for poisoning
- 15 First aid for insect bites
- 16 Help with stroke
- 17 How to act during a heart attack?
- 18 Top 15 tips on how, how to avoid mistakes when providing assistance
Emergencies happen to people every day. People can fall in the street, to get into an accident, to experience worsening of the disease outside the home. In this case, the necessary first aid. Know, how to give first aid, should every.
First aid is then, when there is a threat to human life. This is a list of events, used in accidents, unexpected gains pathologies, intoxication. It should render correctly, not to make things worse. First aid can perform any passerby, which is next. Events are held prior to the arrival of skilled care. Some inhabitants are obliged to provide a package of measures in view of the profession. The list includes, emergency workers and police, military and firefighters.
How to give first aid
Interested in, how to give first aid, people understand, for this it is important to avoid confusion. The combination of medical interventions must be carried out properly. For that, you should follow these tips:
- Make sure, what first aid does not endanger life. Private security must be provided in the first place.
- It is necessary to protect the victim and others. This is especially true for accidents and burning cars.
- To examine the victim and provide first aid. You need to check the heart rate and breathing, to ensure awareness and Tom, he's alive. For, to check lung function, need to pull back the head of the victim back, approaching his nostrils, trying to feel the movement of air. To check, not stopped if heart, to attach the fingers to the junction of the neck and head, about arteries. Assessment of consciousness occurs by shaking and a small survey. You can specify one or two easy question.
- Call the professionals. Need to call the number 112 mobile phone.
- Only after all the preliminary actions to begin emergency care. Based on the situation, you need to perform CPR, stopping bleeding, help restore air flow and other measures.
- Necessary while waiting for a specialist to ensure that the affected person comfortable conditions.
Artificial lung ventilation
CPR is one of the ways, to understand, how to give first aid. If the work light is difficult, necessary procedure of artificial introduction of air into the respiratory tract. Situations, requiring a ventilator, are:
- accidents on the water;
- lose electricity;
A kind of first aid is immediately in the absence of the natural supply of oxygen in the body.
Top 5 tips for mouth-to-mouth
The technique of mouth to mouth is one of the most popular ways, to understand, how to give first aid. To properly conduct rescue activities, you should follow these tips:
- To improve the permeability of air through the nose, the nasopharynx and the oropharynx can, his head injured person on the side. From the oral cavity to remove mucus, items and blood. It is necessary to unclog the nose. You then tilt the person's head and keep the neck hand. It is strictly forbidden to turn the head of the victim with suspected spinal injury.
- To avoid infection put into the mouth of the victim a piece of gauze, paper towel, a foulard.
- Pinch the nose of the person and, taking a deep breath, to cuddle up to his mouth. Need to do is exhale into the lungs of the victim.
- To ensure proper air flow and seemed to help, the first ten breaths should take half a minute. Subsequent you must provide the number 12-15 every minute.
- For, to understand, whether it turns out artificial respiration, need to follow the rib cage. If it rises when you exhale, then you did everything right.
learning, how to give first aid, people finds out the need of the closed massage of heart. It is in the case, if the heart has stopped, and the work was stopped lung. It is also called the compression of the chest. The heart muscles squeeze to improve blood flow. If the pulse is present, massage is strictly prohibited.
To do the procedure correctly, you should follow these tips:
- The victim must be on a hard surface. It is impossible to conduct chest compressions on a mattress, the couch.
- Need to locate the most short-lived of the sternum. The compression point is located in 2-4 cm from it.
- To begin chest compressions, you should place the hands on the compression point. Thumb on the lower part of the face of the victim. Must have hands on each other and squeeze their castle.
- Pressure need a hand. Fingers should not touch the man's chest. Pressure are smooth, rather strongly and vertically. You need to push the weight of the upper body aid.
- The frequency should be equal to 110 compression per minute. Chest deflection is equal to 4 centimeters.
- If such a procedure is necessary to hold an infant, you should use the second and third fingers of one hand. If the massage is adolescents, you need to use the palm of one hand.
- When, if there is no heartbeat and breathing, you need to alternate chest compressions with ventilation is based 30 pressure on the 2 inspiration.
- To discontinue first aid measures needed to restore vital processes. After you turn victim on side, placing the palm of his hand under his head. Have to wait for the ambulance and watching a person.
The Heimlich Maneuver
In the mouth when food or a foreign object, they get stuck and cause asphyxiation in humans. This is called clogging the Airways. Signs of this condition are:
- breath or people coughing and holding his throat;
- the victim is unable to speak;
- the person is blue, the blood vessels in the neck swell.
In such a situation, use the Heimlich maneuver. How to give first aid to this method will tell you some tips:
- You must stand behind the man.
- You need to clasp his hands, cementing his fingers into the lock. Hands should be slightly above the navel under the ribs.
- It is impossible to compress the breast of a man. The exception is pregnant women, the Heimlich maneuver which is carried out by pressing the lower part of the chest.
- Reception must be repeated several times, while people will not be able to breathe.
- In that case, if the person lost consciousness, you need to put him on his back on a hard surface, to sit on his thigh and put pressure on the costal arch. This should be done with both hands.
- If the choking child, you need to turn it around on his stomach and repeatedly slap between the shoulder blades. But do not neglect medical help. Even if the child cleared his throat, appeal to the doctor necessarily.
An alternative way is a strong exhalations. Way to push a foreign object or food. Lean forward and make a powerful exhalations, however, breathe the air slowly and gently. It works in that case, if the person choked.
An alternative way when choking is knocking out the stuck items. Outweigh the need of the person using the chair or tilt strongly, then make a sudden movement along the direction to the neck.
Help with bleeding
figuring out, how to give first aid, man faces stop the bleeding. First aid is stopping external bleeding. The type of vessel depends on the type of bleeding. It may be capillary, venous and arterial. To stop the bleeding, you must follow the advice.
If there is to be capillary bleeding, enough to provide first aid, impose aseptic bandage. If an injury happens on the hands and feet, it is necessary to raise the body part above the level of the trunk. It can be done, tucked under the leg or arm pillow, pre-lay person on the bed.
Venous bleeding is more dangerous. It requires first-aid. When it is needed, compressive bandage. This is done through overlaying gauze, on top of several layers of wool, towel. Need tight wrap. It will not allow the veins to quickly injured, what's to stop the blood loss. If such a bandage is very wet, you need to put pressure on her.
Arterial bleeding is stopped with pressure arteries. The need much you pinch it with your fingers to bone formation. This method is very effective in view of easy availability of the arteries, however, it requires the assistant of a certain physical strength.
If all else fails, the necessary wiring. These are extreme measures, as entail unpleasant consequences. In order to do it, you should follow these tips:
- it is better to apply a tourniquet to the soft lining is a little above the wound;
- after you complete the steps necessary to check the blood vessels to stop bleeding, skin pallor;
- on the wound to bandage it up, in order not to get infected;
- for health professionals need to know, when was the tourniquet, therefore it is necessary to record the exact time;
- do not apply a tourniquet more, than one hour;
- once the time is up, it is necessary to weaken, then pull again for 20 minutes.
After rendering first aid in case of soft tissue injuries and open bleeding you must immediately call for an ambulance. If there was a tourniquet, then report it. In the case of mild bleeding, need to follow the following tips:
- to treat the wound with antiseptic to disinfect;
- for the treatment of wounds suitable hydrogen peroxide or chlorhexidine;
- impose gauze bandage;
- to use the iodine only on the skin around the wound;
- seek medical assistance if necessary;
- if you experience deep cuts, the lack of vaccinations last 5 years tetanus, definitely need to schedule an appointment for vaccination
Treatment of injuries
If you suspect injury, you should follow the tips on how, how to provide first aid for trauma:
- First day to apply cold to the site of injury. If there is no ice, suitable package of frozen vegetables.
- Only after the first day you can apply the ointment or iodine.
- Depending on the extent of the injury may need medical assistance
First aid for fractures
Called fracture damage bone structure. He is accompanied by severe pain, pain shock and bleeding. Distinguish open and closed fractures. Any require first aid. The first kind means soft tissue damage, naked eye to see the fragments of bones. to learn, how to provide first aid in case of fractures, you must follow the advice:
- It is necessary to assess the severity of the fracture and localization. If there is to be bleeding, he needs to be stopped.
- determine, whether to move the victim until medical.
- If there was to be a spinal injury, the movement of the victim is prohibited.
- It is necessary to ensure the immobility of the bones in the wrong place, where was the fracture. To do this, you need to immobilize the joints, which are located just above or below the injury site.
- It is necessary to splint. It will fit the Board, flat shelves, line, special medical devices from the kit. Fixed splint bandages. It must be done tightly, not too tight.
- If there was to be a closed fracture, immobilization need to do through clothing.
- With an open fracture, the splint should not be in the place of performance of the bone.
- It is necessary to impose the injured limb soft.
- Applying a cold compress, to ease the pain before the appearance of physicians.
- When, if the spine is damaged, you can only give a drinking, to remove sweat, however, not to move the body.
The treatment of burns
learning, how to give first aid, man faces burns. They appear due to exposure to high temperatures or chemicals on the skin. There are several characteristics of data damage. There are the following types:
- heat, obtained from the flame, hot items, pair, boiling water;
- chemical, obtained from alkaline, acid substances;
- radiation, received from the light radiation;
- power, received from electric shock;
To provide first aid for burns, you should follow these tips:
- The first step is to get rid of inflicted burn factor – boiling water, flame, couples, objects.
- If there was a thermal burn, it is necessary to release the skin from the clothes, not tearing her, then treated with alcohol solution or vodka. This will help to numb and disinfect the injury.
- Do not use ointment on oily or oil-based. They will not reduce the pain, will not help the healing process, will not become a hand sanitizer..
- You have to handle the wound with cold running water. Then wrap a bandage and apply cold. The victim can give some warm water with dissolved salt.
- Burn heal faster, if you use the spray, which includes panthenol. It is effective for mild.
- If the burn is more, than the size of the palm of your hand, for a long time does not heal, should definitely consult a doctor.
- If the damage is small and is obtained as a result of contact with hot objects, you can process soap. This will help to carry out the neutralization reaction, to ease the pain and to prevent occurrence of blister.
- When 3 and 4 degrees of burns: immediately call a doctor.
Withdrawal from fainting
The fainting is called a sudden loss of consciousness. It is caused by insufficient blood flow to the brain. It is called oxygen starvation. So the brain signals about the lack of necessary substances. Fainting is usually accompanied by nausea and dizziness and requires first aid. Epileptic seizure is accompanied by. To help a person with fainting, you should follow these tips:
- to understand, that the person will faint, you need to look at. Typically roll eyes, decreases heart rate, extremities become colder, the man himself is suffering from a cold sweat. You may receive a darkening of the eyes and disorientation.
- Syncope occurs with fright, the excitement, unwell, too high air temperature. If there was to be a concussion, you must immediately consult a doctor.
- After fainting first lay person in a horizontal position.
- You should provide him with the saturation of fresh air. For this, you can unbutton clothing, open all the Windows and doors.
- You should splash on the face a little cold water and Pat on the cheeks. If people can't Wake up, it is necessary to moisten a cotton ball in ammonia and apply to the nose of the victim.
- When the victim wakes up, to provide him with strong tea or coffee.
- When, if fainting lasts more than a 5 minutes, you should immediately call an ambulance.
Drowning and sunstroke
Interested in the, how to give first aid, man is faced with drowning. They call the penetration of liquid into the lungs, that may subsequently be fatal. To help a drowning person, you must follow the advice:
- The first thing you need to extract the man from the water. He will grasp at any object around. You should approach him with caution. You need to keep the hair or armpits, So, the head was on the surface.
- As soon as the victim will be on land, need the stomach to put him on my knee. The head should be at the bottom.
- The mouth must be cleaned of mucus, vomiting or algae. Prior to that, vigorously compress the chest of a man. Will the water from the lungs and stomach. Then you need to use a napkin.
- You need to check, whether the person is breathing, is there a pulse.
- In the absence of breathing and pulse to conduct indirect heart massage and artificial respiration.
- As soon as the victim began to breathe, it is necessary to lay it on its side, to hide and call medical assistance.
Sunstroke is a fairly common occurrence in the summer, requiring first aid. This is especially true in high temperature. Sun stroke is a malfunction of the brain due to stay on the street in Sunny weather. There is a headache, tinnitus, the feeling of nausea and vomiting, tangible weakness. If the person will not leave the place with direct access to sunlight, he will feel the raising of the temperature, shortness of breath, lose consciousness. To help in this situation, must:
- To move the victim to a cool place in the shade. It should be ventilated.
- You must save him from clothing.
- On the head and neck to put a cold towel, soaked in water.
- Moisten a cotton pad with liquid ammonia and give it a sniff. If there is a need, to do artificial respiration.
- Provide the victim with cool salted water. He needs to drink constantly, don't make a big throat.
- You must help the person to apply a special cream after sun burn. If there is no cream, you can use other cool. Often used sour cream, kefir, gadgets cucumber.
Hypothermia and frostbite
In winter, most people suffer from hypothermia. It is carried out by lowering the body temperature below normal. The metabolism. To help someone in a similar situation, you must follow the advice:
- To move person to a warm place.
- To give the victim warm clothes, blanket. Should definitely wear socks.
- Can not RUB the body of the victim, it needs to gradually warm itself.
- The food and the food should be warm, alcohol is prohibited.
If the fabric is damaged by frost, it is called frostbite. In addition, tissue die off. Most often this applies to hand, legs, the ears and nose. There is humidity, strong frosty wind, immobilization, alcohol intoxication. Symptoms are excessive feeling of coldness and tingling in the affected parts of the body. To provide first aid, you can use the tips:
- To move the person into a warm room.
- Get rid of the cold and wet clothes, wrap in clean and warm.
- In any case, can not RUB the victim with snow, towel. It injures the affected areas.
- Need to provide hot sweetened beverages, warm food. Better suited the soup.
First aid for poisoning
Interested in the, how to give first aid, people face poisoning. It occurs because of ingestion of poisonous, toxic substances. Depending on, what caused the disorder, there are the following types of poisoning:
- poisons and chemicals;
- carbon monoxide;
First aid depends on the substance. The most common are poisoning food poisoning. They are accompanied by vomiting, soft stools and pain in the abdomen. In this case, every 15 minutes for one hour to take activated charcoal. You need to drink plenty of fluids, to refuse to eat, to turn to doctors. If there was to be poisoning with different drugs, alcohol intoxication, first aid can be following the advice:
- The first thing to wash out the stomach of the victim. For this suitable salted water. For each liter have 10 grams of salt and 5 Mr. soda. To drink a few glasses, and then induce vomiting. This should be done until then, while people will not be vomiting pure mass. However, such a procedure is possible only in the case, if the person is conscious.
- Give large amounts of activated charcoal to the victim, pre-dissolved.
- An ambulance must cause.
- If the temperature of the human body increased, you can give him paracetamol, ibuprofen. From abdominal pain well help antispasmodics.
- If there is heartburn and diarrhea, you must give the person Smectite.
Especially food poisoning often occur during the holidays. In different climatic zones food is perceived by the stomach in different ways. therefore, to prevent poisoning on holiday, you must follow the advice:
- Drink plenty of water. You should drink 2 l, however, it should not be water. It is permissible to drink water from the tap just in case, if there is a filter. Otherwise, to buy tablets for water purification.
- Fresh vegetables and fruits eat only in restaurants and cafes. They should be thoroughly washed and cooked.
- You should avoid the place, in which disregard the rules of hygiene.
- Do not leave the products exposed for a long time.
- It is better to eat fruit with skin.
- Well affects the body the consumption of pasteurized dairy products.
- To take a first aid kit with absorbents and enzyme preparations. They will help avoid digestive upset. To take probiotics.
First aid for insect bites
With the approach of summer season increases the number of insects on the street. You should be careful while walking through forests and parks. Among the trees and shrubs can be mites. They are carriers of tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease. If the tick has bitten, you must follow the advice of first aid:
- to go to a medical facility for removal of the insect;
- in the absence of the possibility to the tweezers to pull it yourself;
- mite have to spin around axis counterclockwise;
- once the insect is removed, it is necessary to treat the affected area with antiseptic and consult a doctor;
- the tick to save, then to take the analysis.
Help with stroke
learning, how to give first aid, man is faced with the concept of a stroke. To determine, that the victim was a victim of this disease, check for the following signs:
- the human inability to speak and understand the speech of others;
- dizziness or severe headache;
- impaired coordination;
- numbness in one part of the face and body, change shit;
- when asked to smile, the victim demonstrates asymmetric smile;
- inability to raise both arms at the same time;
- the confusion of speech.
First aid for stroke following tips will help:
- immediately need to call an ambulance, to go to the hospital;
- to provide access to fresh air;
- in the case of high blood pressure give medicine to of lowering it;
- if vomiting, turn his head to one side.
How to act during a heart attack?
In addition to stroke, dangerous disease is a heart attack. It can happen at any time, on the street. to understand, that man was seized by a heart attack, check for the following signs:
- the tightness, pain in the chest, which gives to the blade, left hand;
- panicheskaya attack.
The disease is fatal. It affects not only older people. You need to be more attention to the signs. To help the person during a heart attack, you need to call the doctor, give the victim aspirin, nitroglycerin.
Top 15 tips on how, how to avoid mistakes when providing assistance
figuring out, how to give first aid, man faces and with the wrong techniques. This can lead to tragic consequences. It is therefore important to familiarize yourself with common mistakes and their consequences:
- To touch people, whose suspected spinal injury. This concerns involved in road traffic accident, fallen from the height of. You can move them only in emergencies – burning car, flood. You should leave the person in that position, in which he was. Rescuers dismantled the car around, to get dangerously injured. If a person has a suspected heart attack or stroke, it is necessary to carry on a stretcher.
- Self. If a person is bad, in any case it is impossible to offer medicines, who randomly helped in a similar situation to another. A person may be allergic to the drug, features of the body and contraindications.
- Incorrect provision of chest compressions. The skills of cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be in every. However, it should be done carefully. In any case it is impossible to attempt in the presence of pulse and respiration. There is a risk of broken ribs, to cause internal injuries when negligence and too severe blows on the chest.
- It is not necessary to remove objects from wounds. It will cause severe blood loss, a person can lose too much blood. Will result in death.
- Incorrect wiring. To apply it only in extreme cases. Doctors recommend to restrict the usual tight bandage. Hard enough to keep pressure on, to bandage each other, arriving medical personnel will be able to estimate blood loss. However, if there is to be arterial bleeding, enough to pinch with your fingers the wound. The wiring might be a complete numbness of the limbs, subsequent amputation.
- May not reduce the dislocation. Doctors prefer to first send the victim to x-ray, then draw conclusions. In the case of tyres the limb can be straightened. The fracture site, two nearby joints clamp.
- It is not necessary to send in the victim's mouth a spoon with epilepsy. From the inept actions can break teeth, appears the injuries to the throat. It is also important to keep a person's hands and feet. You only need to support the head to avoid injury.
- You can not put your head back when nose bleed. Blood will flow in the nasal passages and the stomach. It causes bloody vomiting, difficult to determine the degree of hemorrhage when injected into the hospital.
- If there was a poisoning with acid, alkali, in any case can not induce vomiting.
- For personal injury, never apply heat. This will increase swelling and pain.
- You should avoid oils and greasy creams for burns. This will block the access of oxygen and create conditions for rot and spread the pain. The wound will not heal.
- Open wound are forbidden to handle alcohol drugs, iodine and brilliant green. It causes chemical burn, which will leave a scar.
- Rubbing frostbitten skin is prohibited. If you do, will appear on the skin microtrauma, that will lead to necrosis.
- Warm a stuffy nose is impossible. This will increase swelling and worsens the outflow of mucus. Develop inflammation of the, that can lead to meningitis.
- A Pat on the back choking on forbidden. This may contribute to the penetration of a foreign body on.
Razbirayasy, how to give first aid, in no case do not give the victim alcohol. It may not be compatible with drugs, to cause intoxication. Sensitivity to pain is reduced, that will cause excess movement and deterioration.