- 1 The definition
- 2 Causes of
- 3 Facts about supercooling
- 4 As suspected occurrence of supercooling?
- 5 Top best first aid tips
- 6 Actions, fall under the prohibition at overcooling
- 7 Hypothermia and children
- 8 When hospitalization is required?
- 9 care delivery
- 10 What can cause?
- 11 How to prevent the occurrence of?
Being in the cold for too long is dangerous. It may be hypothermia. In this state, a person is observed decrease in body temperature to the critical exponents, and violation of general vital functions. Several distinct stages of hypothermia. It is important to be able to competently provide first aid to the victim.
Hypothermia – a condition, upon the occurrence of which the body temperature drops sharply. Index drops below 35 degrees. State is accompanied by inhibition of the functioning of a number of systems, blanching of the skin. Experts call this phenomenon hypothermia. It is important to assist the victim timely. Ignoring the phenomenon can become a cause of negative consequences and even death. The main reason in favor of cold exposure. With such a state may face and the animal. it arises, if a person or a body will be in a cold environment, but any protection is not.
Systems and organs during supercooling can not work in a normal mode. Their functioning is disrupted. If the temperature dropped significantly, it will affect the blood circulation. it will slow down. A similar phenomenon affects and metabolism. Decreases and heart rate. Fabrics do not receive sufficient oxygen.
Typically, supercooling occurs in the elderly and young children. With the situation may be encountered in the presence of excessive thinness or being in a fixed position. Most often in hospitals with hypothermia get people in a state of alcoholic or drug intoxication, person, Dressed for the weather and try to overcome a long distance, children and fishermen, fell through the ice. According to statistics, Every third victim of hypothermia was under the influence of alcohol.
Separately, experts distinguish medical hypothermia. It is general and local character. The phenomenon is caused artificially. Local hypothermia is used for the treatment of inflammatory processes, bleeding. General hypothermia is used, if the patient has received a head injury, or intracranial hemorrhage occurred. The method applied in the case of surgical treatment of heart disease. Antonym hypothermia hyperthermia acts. This condition, in which the increase in body temperature is observed. As a result, heat stroke can occur.
On the body able to reflect weather conditions. A person has to face with high or low ambient temperature. Typically, supercooling occurs, if people come in cold water. This situation may arise, if you fall through the ice. The body can not keep sufficient heat in the absence of suitable clothing. If there is high humidity or high winds, it increases body heat loss.
It is important to choose the right clothes and shoes. If the heat is not enough, in cold weather it can lead to undercooling. Retain heat better than natural fabrics. It is better to give preference to clothes made of cotton, wool or fur. Synthetic analogues to protect from the cold worse. Some fabrics can increase the risk of freeze. Synthetics bad breath. As a result, the moisture, which is formed during the evaporation from the human body, can not disappear.
As a result, it begins to accelerate heat loss. It is important to pay attention to and shoes. The sole should be thicker 1 cm. It is impossible to shoe tight shoes. In some situations it may be hypothermia feet. If shoes or clothes a little too large, there is a layer of warm air. It acts as an additional wall between the cold and the body. Tight shoes leads to the development of edema feet. As a result, you may receive a list of negative consequences.
Hypothermia might arise as a result of diseases and pathological conditions. The body retains less heat when drugs or alcohol, HIV infection, cirrhosis of the liver, traumatic brain injuries, heart failure, Oncology, hypotension and a whole list of other pathologies. The list of reasons is not exhaustive.
By supercooling can cause fatigue or lack of nutrients. Such a condition occurs when malnutrition or dieting. You need to eat a balanced. There should be a sufficient amount of fat, carbohydrates and vitamins. Increases the risk of hypothermia, if a person is in the cold without headgear or does not move for a long period of time. Nerve strain is also capable of cause of this condition.
Facts about supercooling
before, than to study the symptoms of hypothermia, it is important to become familiar with the state. Typically, a phenomenon experienced by people, find themselves in a state of intoxication. Get hypothermia is possible not only to -30. And will be able to freeze at a temperature +10 degrees. This is possible, if a person went outside in wet clothes, I took a course of treatment of cancer or lost a 700 ml of blood. For thermoregulation in the human body corresponds to the hypothalamus. This is a major endocrine organ. The process involved the spinal cord and of the brain. If there are to be their pathology, increases the risk of hypothermia. It can occur even in the case of, if the outside air temperature is not very low.
When the thermometer is below the arrow -35 degrees, every 30 minutes body temperature begins to decline 1 degrees. usually true, if you remain motionless. When a person's body temperature reached a point 32,9 degrees, the person has a sense of indifference. He stops finding accommodation and do not want to go. He becomes still, he freezes in the snow. The feeling of stiffness of the joints and the impossibility of motion arise at temperature 32,2 degrees or below. If the value of the index reached 31,1 degrees, stops shivering. With it, body tries to warm. It allows to increase the amount of heat in half. However, when reaching such temperatures tremor becomes more waste of energy. She is now in short supply. From that moment, as a man falls to the ground, he does not remember anything. It disables the body parts of the brain, responsible for memory. This is done to save energy.
The most dangerous collision with hypothermia in children. It is important to protect children from the cold, which over the year, but under 6 years old. Their thermoregulatory system is not yet fully matured. Newborn tolerate cold better than adults. They still can not shivering to raise the temperature, however, they are protected by brown adipose tissue. At the age of 28 the day it is about 5% of body weight. Fabric is localized in the neck, back and shoulders and around the kidneys. If the body temperature dropped, brown adipose tissue used by the body for heat. But in adults it a little. If a person is engaged in physical activity, the amount of brown fat increases.
If the body temperature is reduced to 24 degrees, to save a person can not be. However, the rule is not always true, when it comes to medical supercooling. When performed heart surgery, body temperature is reduced to 20 degrees. This makes it possible to operate even when the heart-lung machine. However, this is possible only for a 17 minutes. Objective symptom is the appearance of a burning sensation.
Interesting, that the human body is able to independently provide themselves with heat in an emergency. Its development is due to the work of muscles. This phenomenon is called tremor. It allows you to increase the amount of heat 3-4 times more, than walking. Muscle actively reduced. At the same time they are heated by two or more degrees. When doing strenuous physical work produced in the heat 2-2,5 times more, than with a shudder.
Faced with hypothermia, the body increases the minimum power necessary to run bodies. During the process of the thyroid gland is responsible. Therefore, persons, suffering from hypothyroidism, It cools faster. Used for heat adipose tissue. If the person has a weight, the risk of death is reduced while cooling. There is acceleration of the chemical processes in the liver. As a result, the body part itself provides energy. The heart begins to beat faster. This increases the amount of heat. The work includes additional parts of the brain and kidney.
Faced with hypothermia, should eat food. In the process of digestion formed energy, which is so necessary for the body. Additionally, it is recommended to curl. As a result, the body area, in contact with the environment, decrease. The body reduces the blood supply to the periphery. The process affects the hypodermis, skeletal muscles. The phenomenon is particularly noticeable on the legs. Previously, all the body disconnects supply of the skin and sweat glands. Indeed, their task is to increase the evaporation heat from the body surface. Breathing becomes less. Also, heat is evaporation.
As suspected occurrence of supercooling?
Signs of hypothermia is easy to notice. Person, affected by undue influence of cold, I feel a surge of strength. It may be noted, he was too excited. In this case, the skin of nasolabial triangle changes color. it turns blue. Other covers are pale. May cause chills. He is very strong. Status complemented otdyshkoj. Pulse exceeds the normal values.
Noticing one or more of the above signs during or after exposure to cold, it is important to start treatment measures. If idle, soon lost the excitement. He will be replaced by apathy. The patient becomes inhibited. There is a lethargy. Desire to move disappears. It will soon disappear and the ability to implement the action. Human weakness worries. He feels a strong desire to sleep. You can lose consciousness. Sometimes it comes back, and then disappears again.
If the assistance provided, and subsequently will not be, there is cessation of cardiac and respiratory activity. man dies. It is crucial to give first aid.
Top best first aid tips
Finding signs of hypothermia, it is important to help the victim. Man's task - to warm the face, The exposed, and do not harm him. Initially required pick victim from cold to warm. If it is found far from human habitation, necessary to move the patient maximally protected from exposure to wind and cold zone. After that you can start warming.
If a person was supercooling, it must be put, and then wrap. If there is damp clothes, You need to get rid of it, replacing dry. It is impossible to wrap your head. This will block the access of oxygen, worsen the situation. If you have a hot water bottle, it must be filled with warm water and put on the chest of the victim. Hot liquid is not used. If not at hand warmers, You can use the usual bottle. Will benefit and the use of electric blankets.
It is important to carefully inspect the limbs. If they are frostbitten, the use of hot water is unacceptable. In the affected areas overlap insulating bandage. They must be sterile. If the victim is conscious, it is necessary to drink a hot drink. It can be tea or juice. Fit and regular water. liquid task - to accelerate warming and normalize the condition of the victim. Offering alcohol and coffee is strictly prohibited.
If using the above methods to warm up after hypothermia fails, it is recommended to take a bath with warm water. The temperature should not exceed 37 – 40 degrees. When the procedure is completed, It needs to go to bed. In this case, the person should impose a warm heating pad and wrap up in a blanket. Use the bath as a first step it is impossible when dealing with frostbite.
If a person has lost consciousness during supercooling, It needs to start to perform rescue breathing and chest compressions. Should immediately call an ambulance. It is important to monitor the situation of the victim's head. It should be directed towards. Action is taken to, in the event of retching man suffocated.
Strictly prohibited after supercooling immediately sent to a hot bath. Is prohibited and warming the frozen hands under running hot water. Happen sharp temperature drop. The result is damage to capillaries. This could lead to a whole list of complications. So, humans internal bleeding could occur. Is it dangerous.
Actions, fall under the prohibition at overcooling
If there was hypothermia and frostbite, it is important to properly administer first aid, and do no harm to the victim. It is important to give a person a drink of something warming. However, this may not be alcohol or coffee. The above drinks only harm. Warming should be gradual. So, the use of hot water is unacceptable. The liquid should be warm. The rule also applies to the water temperature in the bathroom, if a person will have to put to warm.
If there hypothermia, can not be produced by trituration using oil. The use of alcohol, snow, oil or perform an action with dry hands, too, falls under the prohibition. From the effects of cold on the affected skin may occur bubbles. They were not allowed to pierce. If you need to warm up, for this purpose is forbidden to use open fire.
Failure inhibitions lead to sudden temperature changes. As a result, complications may occur. Most often there is a hemorrhage.
Hypothermia and children
Hypothermia in children can be caused by not only finding in the street without enough warm clothing. The situation often arises as a result of the delay with the change of diapers, performing cold bathing, lowering the room temperature or longer stay in air in cold or damp weather. If a family lives in a private house, the child may remain unattended and alone go outside. If a baby is suffering from rickets, increases the risk of hypothermia. The situation also arises in the case of, if the child eats enough and monotonous.
Symptomatic phenomenon serves the appearance of weakness or drowsiness, lowering skin temperature, tachycardia and shortness of breath. Sometimes there is atypical behavior. So, child, which usually behaves actively, can be silent. If your child is under 3 of the year, muscle tremors, in response to hypothermia, missing. To provide first aid to the child, you need to wrap it. You will then need to call an ambulance. Next is a change of clothes.
When hospitalization is required?
hypothermia treatment can be performed at home or in hospital. In both cases, a mandatory visit to a doctor. However, there are a number of situations, in which the patient is required to be hospitalized. The need for treatment in a hospital is present in the following situations::
- man found no signs of life;
- at the time of detection of the victim was unconscious;
- frostbite observed one of the last two degrees, affecting any part of the body;
- observed arrhythmic pulse;
- subjected to cold child;
- injured person under the age;
- with limbs frostbite faced man, diabetic;
- the victim revealed hypothermia 2-4 degrees.
People need to be hospitalized, who have sores, sclerosis of the lower limbs or occlusive disease. The treatment will be carried out in the hospital regardless of the degree of frostbite.
frostbite treatment should be carried out strictly under the supervision of a specialist. If a person is hospitalized, it is laid on the mattress with warm water. Implemented by intravenous solutions. They warmed up 37 degrees and above. A person provide adequate breathing. If the patient, undergone, pereohlazhdenyyu, It is conscious, he is given humidified oxygen. The procedure is performed through a mask. If the person is unconscious, it compulsorily administered therapeutic anesthesia. then the patient, subjected to hypothermia, translate into breathing with the help of artificial lung ventilation apparatus. If you want to, performed defibrillation.
patients, found with 3 the degree of hypothermia, connected to a heart-lung machine. Device allows the patient to warm after hypothermia. It raises the temperature 1 degree every 3 minutes. If it is impossible to carry out all the procedures, sometimes performed surgery. In this situation, the internal organs are washed by warm water. Its temperature is gradually increased.
Additionally, the use of drugs is carried out, which improve the functioning of the heart after hypothermia. If you want to, artificial pacemaker can be set, having the function of defibrillation. When the danger has passed, It was the restoration of cardiac rhythm, It begins the introduction of antispasmodics. The task is to eliminate the drug vasospasms.
If after hypothermia person concerned about pain in any part of the body, produced administering anesthetic drugs. Such a reaction can result in frostbite and prolonged muscle spasms. Additionally appointed vitamins and antihistamines. used drugs, contributing to the improvement of the heartbeat. When the patient was placed in a hospital, temperature monitoring is carried out. The measurements are performed in the rectum. The process is carried out by a sensor.
Initially after subcooling can be observed decrease in body temperature. This is due to the fact, the skin and subcutaneous tissue, staying cool, cooled remaining tissue. However, in the time value of the indicator should begin to rise. Specialists independently determine the rate of introduction of saline after supercooling, if there is no heart-lung machine. As a result, experts are trying to achieve a temperature increase 1 degree every 15 minutes. The meter and other indicators. Doctors monitor the blood pressure of the person, subjected to hypothermia, and the number of breaths. Often you are installing cardiomonitor. Action is required to monitor the heart rhythm of the victim from hypothermia.
What can cause?
Consequences of hypothermia depend on its degree of. The outcome may be severe enough. You may experience frostbite, pneumonia, ENT diseases, Influenza and SARS. Available somatic pathology may be exacerbated. Sometimes possible death after hypothermia. He comes as a result of rapid rewarming, cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation or frostbite extremities in the last stage.
In practice it may cause overcooling of individual body parts or organs. So, If the problem has affected head area, vasospasm occurs. As a result, a person has a headache and dizziness. It is necessary to take a course of therapeutic treatment. The consequence of hypothermia of the head becomes a worsening of hypertension, if it is present, meningitis, inflammation. If there hypothermia feet, Possible complications vary. The man may face:
- common cold;
- pathology of joints.
If hypothermia affected loins, a person may be sciatica. Men in such a situation often faced with prostatitis. Sometimes inflammation of the kidney tissue occurs. When subjected to cold impact trigeminal nerve and its branches, there is an inflammatory process. He is accompanied by severe pain after hypothermia, bearing yanking character.
If there is a complication of hypothermia, It needs to carry out physiotherapy. Additionally appointed analgesic therapy. His conduct directs a neurologist. Sometimes tooth subcooling. In this situation, there is the so-called granuloma. This name is a capsule with pus. It is localized in the root of a tooth. The symptoms of pathology are the increase in the gums and redness. To combat the problem of hypothermia after the need to refer to the dentist.
How to prevent the occurrence of?
In order not to face the problem and possible consequences, it is important to carry out the prevention of hypothermia. You must wear clothes, picked up on the season. Socks and gloves should be dry. If the day is too frosty, avoid hypothermia every 15-20 minutes is required to enter into a warm room for, keep warm. The cold is strictly forbidden to go out with wet hair.
Smoking is strictly prohibited in the cold. The process reduces the peripheral blood circulation, which increases the risk of hypothermia. Before going out on the street it is forbidden to wet the surface of the liquid and the skin or use a moisturizer. Being on the street, should pay attention to their health. If you experience the first signs of hypothermia, required to immediately go to a warm place.