- 1 What could be the credit
- 2 The basic requirements for the borrower
- 3 What to do in the absence of official work
- 4 Terms and conditions of consumer credit
- 5 The importance of a positive credit history
- 6 Why do the little things are important in the contract
- 7 How can you refuse insurance
- 8 Steps for obtaining a loan
- 9 What may be associated failure
Today, you can take credit for any purpose, whether it is a holiday at the sea or buying an apartment. Banks compete, offering attractive conditions. It is important to understand, that the loan commitment should be a prudent step. In modern conditions the evaluation of its ability to pay debt, able to regularly and fully pay for the money you can create a positive credit history. This directly affects the prospect of further credit in any bank.
What could be the credit
The main mistake of the common man is ready to respond to any loan offer. Before going to the credit institution must be carefully analyze their needs and possibilities and to compare loan terms, selecting the best option. Necessary to proceed from a simple calculation: the amount of monthly payments on the loan should not exceed 30% income derived from.
Banks monthly develop new loan products. In deciding, which loan to take, first of all need to think about the goals. In general terms, all the offers of the banks can be divided into the following groups:
- Express loans - an option to take a loan without certificates, guarantors in an amount not more 70 000 rubles for a period up to six years. Usually it is enough to passports and statements from the borrower. Such a loan can be obtained in micro-credit organizations. In just a few minutes you can leave the application and obtain approval. One of the major disadvantages of such loans are very high stakes. This is ideal for situations, if all denied.
- Take a loan without collateral and collateral. According to a simplified procedure can take larger amounts (to 2 000 000 rubles) for periods up to 60 months. An important role is played by a positive credit history and experience in the last place at least six months. Of course, will need to provide proof not only of the individual, but income. Typically, such applications are considered no more 3 days.
- Credit card. She could pay for any goods and services, There are no restrictions on its use, it is convenient to take with you. However, the interest on this type of lending high, and take the credit in this form is expensive -.
- Consumer credit cash. At its core, such lending is similar to the rapid credit, It requires only a passport and application.
- Interest-free loan from the store. This is one of the marketing gimmicks. All expenses on loans included in the price of goods, which, usually, above, than the acquisition of a full payment.
- Trust car loan. His issue is not all banks. Terms usually do not exceed 6 years old.
- Mortgage, up to 25 years old.
Interest rates on car loans and mortgages are usually small. However, the borrower will have to carefully prepare documents to tune in to a long collaboration with the bank, who will oversee every step of the buyer.
The basic requirements for the borrower
The Bank will require confirmation of the following borrower characteristics:
- Russian citizenship and registration in Russia - a prerequisite. But some banks allow you to take out a loan to a stateless person, if possible collateral.
- adulthood (the borrower should be more 18 years old). The age limit to 65 years is also used quite often. And that age is taken into account throughout the entire maturity. I.e, borrower aged 60 years old (even a pensioner) in obtaining a loan for a period of more than 5 years old, probably, It will be refused.
- Proof of income sources (experience not less than 3 months). When frequent changes of employer, Most likely, It will be refused,.
- Positive credit history increases the chances to get a bank loan.
- Phone number (some credit institutions as a prerequisite you need to provide a fixed number).
The advertisements can often find a promise to give credit only on the passport. Probably, In this case, you can get a waiver. But even if so it must be remembered, all the risks of the bank will be incorporated in the interest rate. Therefore, preparation of necessary documents can count on more favorable terms, a small percentage.
If you need a regular consumer credit, the required basic documents:
- Russian passport;
- a second paper on a choice (snils, international passport, driver's license, etc.);
- documents, confirming solvency;
- the issuance of trust loan the bank may require additional supporting documents, eg, agreement with the institution, estimates of repairs.
When secured lending documents may be requested, confirming the right of ownership and contain a description of the collateral (certificate of registration of property, PTS on cars, expert opinions on the valuation of the property). Bank after the approval of the application is to provide additional time to prepare a full set of.
What to do in the absence of official work
Official place of work - this is a significant plus for the borrower. But what about the unemployed and undocumented workers, wishing to take out a loan? The Bank classifies borrowers unemployed in three categories:
- laid-off citizens in the search for a new job;
- persons with no income;
- samozanyatoe population, without formal employment - is a significant part of the Russian society. This freelancers online, and self-employed professionals, person, working at SP, babysitting, housekeeper.
Take credit working informally or temporarily lost their jobs a lot easier. But you can count only for a short period of loan, a small amount and a higher interest rate.
The Bank may issue loan to the borrower without work and without income, presenting special, more stringent conditions for the receipt. It may require confirmation document, eg, statement of operations on the bank account or accounts for the purchase of goods and services by a substantial amount. The minimum amount of the loan may be issued for study time, eg, students, receive scholarships. Some banks give loans to pensioners.
Take out a loan with no official confirmation of income in the following cases:
- The successful experience of the previous lending.
- Take a loan against property.
- The guarantee of officially employed person.
- A small amount for a short period.
- Indirectly show their ability to pay, you can use the passport stamped on regular journeys.
Terms and conditions of consumer credit
Each year, the amount of credits "consumer" discharge increases on average 20%. People are more likely to trust banks. However, the growing debt on this type of lending.
The concept of consumer credit in the federal law "On consumer credit". Its essence, that the financial institution gives the borrower money to purchase expensive goods or services and for emergency purpose. Such lending is not used to finance business activities.
In terms of consumer credit may be:
- short (to 1 of the year),
- long-term (over 1 of the year). In Russia, the maximum period of such insurance shall not exceed 7 years old.
Distinguish between secured and unsecured loan. Financial Company may require as security for repayment mortgage debt, surety. An important condition for secured lending is the inability to sell, give the mortgaged property (whether it be a car or apartment). Besides, We need to know the fact, that the bank evaluates the property at a cost of no more than 50% from the real.
Additional guarantee can provide insurance. For any credit institution payment of the money in the debt - is always a risk. Not ready to give guarantees debt repayment? Get a bank failure or high interest rates.
Consumer loans are divided into:
- earmarked. Can take credit for education, treatment, acquisition of furniture and other expensive goods, ticket to vacation. For such transactions often required for expense report. for example, on the development of part-time farm in Sberbank. Most often targeted loans are paid not to the borrower, and organization, service or where the goods are received: showroom, institution, construction company. Banks take a loan for a specific purpose to allow the requirements, eg, compulsory motor insurance CASCO or pledge the acquired apartment (when obtaining a mortgage).
- Non-target it can be used for any purpose. It has a higher percentage of, limitations on the amount and stringent requirements for the borrower.
Among special categories of borrowers are often allocated pensioners, civil servants, employees of government agencies, farmers.
Lenders various microfinance institutions can act other than banks, pawn shops, trading companies, entity - employer, ordinary citizens.
What to look for when applying for a loan? Only on the passport can obtain an express loan, consumer and credit card. It should also be remembered, In the absence of proof of income and employment used the maximum rates. Therefore, the critical perception of advertising proposals would be superfluous.
Rate for consumer credit can vary depending on:
- status of the borrower. Often the view of the customer is formed on the basis of previous work with him.
- regular treatment in banks;
- loan amount;
- the volume of the documents submitted.
The larger package of documents prepared for the bank, the lower the interest rate and the greater the chance to take a loan in the right amount as long as possible.
The importance of a positive credit history
Credit history is formed on the basis of the timeliness of payments, availability of delinquency, prepayments. The concept of "good credit history" Each bank their. Despite the Central Bank established a payment delay for more than 30 days, most often it is not more than 3 Arrears for the year, no more than 5 days.
In Russia, as in the whole civilized world,, There are special institutions, that is compiling files on every citizen to determine the presence of debt. These structures are called the Bureau of Credit Histories (BKI). They monitor the creditworthiness of the customer with the future.
Worker, receiving wages by bank card, entered into the database. Even when you make an ordinary consumer credit, financial data of this fact go to BCH. Take out a loan with a bad history is very difficult, because the bank employee must request a credit history of the borrower. BCI has the most accurate and complete information on the amount of all loans, debt on loans and arrears.
Customer, which has outstanding debt, in most cases is denied. Indeed, this fact testifies to the bad faith of the borrower.
Reliable borrower can take out a loan with low interest rates and more favorable terms.
Bad credit history is not formed due to one-time delinquency. it, usually, the existence of outstanding loans. What makes timely payments:
- More favorable terms and a personal offer from the Bank, where you have previously taken a loan and repaid in time.
- The necessary documents will be significantly reduced.
- Accelerated review process.
Of course, does not make sense to contact the Bank, in which there is an outstanding debt and long overdue. You can try to take credit for the map in other credit institutions, which will be closed to this fact eyes. Especially willing to give loans to newly opened branches of credit institutions.
To rectify the situation with a bad credit history in the following ways:
- Take a few short-term loans on time to repay them. for example, to get a credit card with a small limit, actively use it and to meet deadlines interest free concessional lending. The trust of Bank will be restored.
- Documents to prove their current ability to pay.
- To provide evidence of the reasons, which had previously approved the delay (eg, a certificate from the hospital).
- To use the procedure of refinancing, that is to take out a loan to pay off old debts. certainly, to take advantage of this method is necessary only in cases, when there is an opportunity to pay off new loan. Refinancing allows you to either reduce the interest, either the monthly payment.
- Contact the Central Bank with a request to remove the entire credit history.
Why do the little things are important in the contract
The tasks of the employee of the Bank includes not only documentation of the loan. Often the customer imposed quite unnecessary options and services. Therefore, an important point when receiving money is to carefully read the terms of the credit agreement. If the Manager does not give time to think, hurry and do not wish to explain any unclear points, you should think about the need to work with the Bank. Because now on the market there are dozens of attractive offers, where to get a loan easy and profitable.
Clauses, which should be paid close attention:
- Large print, in the upper right corner, enter the full amount of the loan, taking into account all fees and interest. Onon may differ from the interest rates, stated on the advertising poster.
- Schedule of payments amounts should be understandable. Payment can be equal or decreasing. The contract should include conditions for early repayment of consumer credit. Penalties for early repayment according to the regulations. But should pay attention to the possibility of reducing the debt burden and suggestions from the Bank in such situations.
- The agreement spells out fines and penalties for late.
Besides, it is necessary to know some nuances of lending, correctly to issue the credit. Banks do not always point them out, and sometimes purposefully ignore. Prior to the signing of the loan agreement should clarify the following points of agreement:
- Insurance.It is the inclusion in the contract of insurance is a problem 1. Is it possible to take the credit without an insurance policy? In most cases, Yes.
- Additional services. Before, how to get a loan, need to clarify the cost of related services. Additional charges may be in the form of a Commission to the Bank for the loan, fee for maintaining accounts, the Commission on cashing, sanctions for delay of payments. Particular care should be taken to receive credit cards. Often taken payment for SMS notification, for cash withdrawals from the account.
- Items, allocated under the sign of “*”.The fine print is the ideal condition for inclusion is beneficial to the Bank items to the contract. If the Manager is unhappy, as the borrower closely studies these terms, it may be worth it to change the Bank?
- Preferential credit terms.Many banks engage in the graduation of borrowers to payroll clients and the usual. The most profitable credit conditions there, where the borrower gets paid, pension and any other transfers without visiting the Bank on the map.
- Required to specify the penalty for late payment, terms and conditions of payment delay.
- When receiving the consumer credit it is important to clarify the following point: who will pay interest for the use of money in the event of failure of the product, when you want to recover the full cost. In motor insurance the actual question is, settlement of debts, the payment of interest in case of theft or accident.
- In many situations, it is easier and cheaper to take a credit card from the Bank. this will allow you to use preferential interest-free period and to increase the credit line.
How can you refuse insurance
The purpose of insurance payment, which are charged to the client, is the guarantee for the Bank in case, when the borrower unforeseen difficulties. It may be the loss of a job, serious illness or death. The insurance company helps to compensate losses from non borrowed funds.
Often the client is not even informed about the inclusion of the cost of insurance in the contract for a loan. But the conclusion of the insurance contract is not a prerequisite. To voluntary types of insurance are:
- Life insurance and health when getting a consumer loan.
- Risk of becoming unemployed in the event of bankruptcy of the enterprise or reduction. Ordinary dismissal is not considered insured event.
- Title insurance is used for mortgage loans. This service allows you to avoid resale of the mortgaged property.
- Hull. This kind of insurance coverage is voluntary, despite, many banks include it in the mandatory terms of the loan. Quite often the refusal of insurance the credit institution sets a higher percentage. for example, VTB lends at a rate 16,9% without CASCO and life insurance and 12,9% with all the insurances.
The insurance policy is definitely purchased only in mortgage lending. The citizen is obliged to insure the purchased object. All other case insured on a voluntary basis.
Services of insurance companies are regulated by the law “On protection of consumer rights” and the Civil code of the Russian Federation.
Close attention should be paid to the conditions from the insurance companies, after all, they can be different. Besides, need to clarify what will cause the rejection of insurance:
- A loan may be denied, at the same time to sound the reason the Bank will not.
- Credit may be issued at a higher interest rate.
- The conditions can remain unchanged. Such cases are not uncommon, after all, banks are interested in customers. Individual approach allows to calculate a reliable borrower on the, the Bank will go to meet him, providing you with the ability to take out a loan without insurance with preserving the environment.
If the borrower consents to the insurance, you still need to calculate monthly payments. Sometimes they get higher, what percentage of the contract, not providing insurance.
After receiving the credit is possible 2 the scenario.
The first situation is in a “cooling period”, the decision to refuse the insurance. This time, allotted for the cancellation of the insurance contract, during which it is possible to return the consideration paid for the policy money (with 01.01.2018 this period is 14 days). For this purpose the borrower shall apply for a waiver to the insurance company. It is very important to apply it to the insurance company, and not in the Bank. The return of the insurance payment may be full or partial. Can also be rejected upon the occurrence of the insured event.
The second scenario – the “cooling period” has passed. To refuse insurance will be much more difficult. You need to carefully study the credit and insurance contracts, which stipulate the conditions for termination. for example, the early repayment of debt. It is not excluded, that will require the assistance of a lawyer.
That gives insurance to the borrower:
- At loss of work it is possible to repay the payments at the time of finding a new place.
- In the case of damage to life and health insurance company extinguishes debt. This allows you to protect loved ones from litigation, different sanctions from banks.
- Credit history will not deteriorate due to non-payment of debt.
Matters and procedure for the conclusion of the insurance contract. So, can be applied to collective insurance. Banks often use this loophole in the law in order, to prevent rejection. In this case, the contract is between the Bank and the insurance company.
The borrower writes an application to connect to their insurance program, along with the rest. When leaving to return the money paid is almost impossible, because the borrower did not sign the agreement with the insurance company. The cooling-off period for such insurance contracts is not valid.
Steps for obtaining a loan
Every year the procedure for obtaining a loan is simplified. Pre-decorated online application can be sent from a home computer. But approval is still required to visit a lending institution with a ready package of documents.
What you need to learn before filing the online application:
- To check compliance with the age of the borrower the requirements of the Bank.
- Comparative analysis of credit conditions in different banks.
- Refer to the assessment of their financial capabilities carefully as possible. This is a very important stage, which can lead to heavy debts and bad credit history. Assume all situations, which can lead to an inability to pay the debt. Not all banks offer deferment if you experience problems with customers.
- To check the required documents for approval and the most favorable conditions, which depend on documentary evidence.
This manual will lead you step by step through all the stages of the loan:
- Filling the application form. It may have a non-standard form, but their main purpose is unchanged: to obtain information about the borrower (work, income, get the loan and t. D.). Convenient option of online application provide almost all the banks.
- Based on these data, the credit institution can reject or grant preliminary approval of the application.
- The documents required for personal visit to the Bank can be found on the official website of the organization.
- The final step is to visit the Bank for signing the contract and receiving the money. In most cases, to get a cash loan not work. The Bank will issue debit card, which will have to withdraw the received funds to the needs of the borrower.
What may be associated failure
Banks are not required to inform the borrower the reasons for denial of the loan. In most cases, this decision can be caused by the following circumstances:
- Bad credit history. This is a very important point, to which must be approached responsibly. Checking your credit history allows you to save time and effort in advance of an unsuccessful application. The failure may result and treatment of a person without credit history. In these cases, for a Bank client is kind of "dark horse", it is unclear whether he will be able to pay its obligations in full in time.
- False information. The Bank's security service checks the specified data. In the case of fraud likely to take a loan in the future is reduced to zero.
- The level of income may not correspond to the lower limits, adopted by the Bank. This figure is hard to imagine. Besides, large debt for utility services may also be the cause of failure.
- Age limit.
- Frequent change of work.
- Criminal record and mental illness.
- Not a secret, the Manager, which makes a loan, will assess the borrower and on the basis of foreign experience. In any application provided for personal comments from the staff. Therefore, untidiness in dress, confusion in the information provided, nervousness, aggression and other deviations from accepted norms of conduct will not go unnoticed.
Upon receipt of failure in one Bank can try to take the credit in other financial companies. If all attempts were unsuccessful, you can use the services of brokers, assisting in lending for a fee (usually a percentage of the contract sum). These companies act as intermediaries. Broker selects the optimal lending scheme for every customer, interacts with appraisal and insurance companies, completely is a financial client project.